In the fall, as the temperature drops, the vaccination of the fall and winter flu vaccine has been put on the agenda by many people. In the context of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the demand for vaccination this year is higher than before. Will the phenomenon of "a single shot hard to find" emerge?
Influenza vaccines have been launched in many places
November to March of the following year is the season of high influenza incidence.
Since it usually takes 2 to 4 weeks after influenza vaccination to produce a protective level of antibodies in the human body, September to October each year is the best time for influenza vaccination.
The reporter combed and found that at present, influenza vaccines have been launched in many provinces across the country.
For example, the 60,000 influenza vaccines scheduled in the first round of Gansu Province had been vaccinated before the end of August. On September 1, the first domestically-made nasal spray flu vaccine in Shandong Province was also vaccinated. In addition, Beijing also launched the 2020-2021 influenza vaccine procurement bidding in August.
From the perspective of local policies, this year, many cities have also given preferential treatment to some special groups.
According to a recent announcement issued by the Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, it is clear that the elderly over 70 years old in Hangzhou can receive influenza vaccines for free.
Xiangyang City also announced that from September to October, all kinds of school students and kindergarten children in the city will be vaccinated free of charge for influenza vaccination, and the special work of children and student vaccination certificates inspection, replenishment and replanting will be completed by the end of October.
Why is flu vaccination this year so important?
The new crown pneumonia epidemic is spreading around the world, which also makes the prevention and control of influenza in this autumn and winter particularly interesting.
According to WHO monitoring this year, three of the four most prevalent influenza virus strains in the northern hemisphere have changed.
In August of this year, officials of the World Health Organization publicly stated that due to the indistinguishability of the symptoms of new coronary pneumonia and influenza and limited medical resources, countries should increase the vaccination rate of influenza vaccination, fight against influenza, and focus on fighting the epidemic.
In China, Wang Chen, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and an expert in respiratory and critical care medicine, has suggested that the most effective preventive method is to get the flu vaccine in time and expand the population.
In response to the situation of influenza prevention and control in this autumn and winter, vaccine expert Tao Lina analyzed in an interview with a reporter from Chinanews.com, "The changes in influenza virus strains are currently predictions. It does not mean that these strains will be prevalent. Although the strains change every year, they are generally relatively small. If a major mutation is really predicted, it will definitely be prepared."
Taolina emphasized that the importance of influenza vaccination this autumn and winter is mainly due to two factors: First, from the perspective of the overall epidemic control, if a patient develops fever after being vaccinated with influenza vaccine, he can consider less influenza factors. , To reduce interference with the judgment of the epidemic; second, there is evidence that if the dual infection of new coronary pneumonia and influenza occurs, the symptoms will get worse.
He said that compared with other types of vaccines, the protection rate of influenza vaccines is relatively low. The current protection rate of influenza vaccines is generally 60%-70%, which means that in order to form group protection, vaccination The rate is very demanding.
The demand for vaccination is increasing. Is the flu vaccine enough?
Statistics show that in the past, the domestic influenza vaccination rate was around 2% per year, which is far lower than that in some Western countries. However, affected by the epidemic this year, people's willingness to vaccinate has increased significantly.
"Last year, only the children in the family were vaccinated for influenza, but this year I want the whole family to vaccinate as much as possible, hoping to reduce the risk of running to the hospital." Beijing citizen Ms. Chen said in an interview with reporters that she has been paying close attention to Beijing recently. I hope I can make an appointment as soon as possible.
Zhang Xiaoshu, director of the Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Immunization Program, said earlier that this year's vaccination peak in Gansu Province came ahead of schedule, and the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic is an important reason.
In Shanghai, the disease control department initially predicts that the demand for influenza vaccination in the fall and winter this year will increase by about 50% compared with previous years.
Against this background, whether this year's vaccination will produce a contradiction between supply and demand has also become the focus of attention.
"The validity period of the vaccine is only one year. In the past, the vaccine produced by the company had a relatively high scrap rate every year. The company was worried that the vaccine produced could not be used, so it dare not produce too much." Taolina explained that in the past, professional The personnel pay much attention to influenza vaccination, but the public is not paying enough attention, so the domestic vaccination situation is not ideal, which also leads to the low production capacity of the company.
However, the supply of vaccines this year is expected to increase significantly compared with previous years.
According to statistics on the batch issuance of biological products issued by the China Institute for Food and Drug Control, as of September 8, more than 15 million doses of influenza vaccines have been approved, including trivalent influenza vaccines, quadrivalent influenza vaccines and newly listed freeze-dried noses. There are three kinds of attenuated live flu vaccines.
In addition, compared with last year, the number of companies that have been approved for influenza vaccines this year has increased to 7.
Taolina revealed that, judging from the information reported by flu vaccine companies, it is expected that the number of batches of flu vaccine issued this year will at least double that of last year. However, experts believe that whether there will be a shortage of demand depends on the actual demand for vaccination this year.
About influenza vaccination, these must be understood!
——Preference for influenza vaccination
In principle, anyone who is 6 months old and above who is willing to get the flu vaccine and has no contraindications can get the flu vaccine.
The following key populations are recommended to give priority to vaccination: children aged 6 months-5 years old; elderly 60 years and older; patients with chronic diseases; medical staff.
——The timing of influenza vaccination
Usually 2 to 4 weeks after vaccination with influenza vaccine, a protective level of antibodies is produced. It is recommended that individuals complete vaccination before the epidemic season. Those who have not been vaccinated before the epidemic season can also be vaccinated throughout the epidemic season.
After vaccination, the protective effect can be maintained for 6 to 8 months, gradually weakening over time, and influenza virus is prone to mutation, so it is recommended to receive influenza vaccine every year.
——How to choose different vaccines?
The number of strains contained in the trivalent vaccine and the quadrivalent vaccine is different. The quadrivalent influenza vaccine has one more type than the trivalent influenza vaccine, and the protection range is wider than the trivalent vaccine, but the trivalent vaccine is more economical.
nasal spray vaccine is a newly-listed vaccine. It is an attenuated vaccine in terms of technology. The vaccine contains live virus and is vaccinated by nasal spray to more simulate the natural infection process.
No matter which type of vaccine, it has a preventive effect on influenza. People can choose the flu vaccine that suits them according to their actual needs.
——The protection rate of flu vaccine is not 100%
The protection rate of the flu vaccine is not 100%. Therefore, it is still possible to get the flu after the flu vaccine.
The public should still maintain good personal hygiene habits in autumn and winter, including: wearing masks, washing hands frequently, paying attention to respiratory etiquette (cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing), opening windows for ventilation, eating a balanced diet, and exercising moderately; During the flu season, high-risk groups should try to avoid going to crowded places.